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All about hyperparathyroidism causes hyperparathyroidism symptoms of hyperparathyroidism diagnosis of hyperparathyroidism treatments for hyperparathyroidism primary hyperparathyroidism secondary hyperparathyroidism

What is secondary hyperparathyroidism?

Secondary hyperparathyroidism is a functional disorder of all of the four parathyroid glands due to a serious chronic kidney insufficiency. Secondary hyperparathyroidism is characterized by pronounced parathyroid gland hyperplasia resulting from

end-organ resistance to parathyroid hormone (PTH). The consequent hypersecretion of PTH depresses calcium levels. The most important cause of secondary hyperparathyroidism is chronic renal insufficiency.

In secondary hyperparathyroidism, pronounced hyperplasia of the chief cells of the parathyroid gland is often present. This hyperplasia usually affects all 4 glands, but 2 or even 3 may be spared. The cause of this asymmetric involvement is obscure. In exception cases, a true adenoma may develop.

The most common cause of secondary hyperparathyroidism is chronic renal disease, which is an occurrence in hemodialysis patients. Chronic hypocalcemia and secondary hyperparathyroidism may also occur in vitamin D deficiency, intestinal malabsorption syndromes with inadequate absorption of vitamin D and calcium, and pseudohypoparathyroidism. Other rare causes associated with secondary hyperparathyroidism include the long-term furosemide therapy in infants, the use of oral contraceptives, and idiopathic hypercalciuria.

Treatment involves correcting the underlying cause of the secondary hyperparathyroidism. Patients with vitamin D deficiency are treated with vitamin D or measures to correct malabsorption. Patients with cancer are usually treated surgically. Patients with chronic kidney failure are usually treated with calcium supplementation, phosphate restriction, and vitamin D analogs. Dialysis, kidney transplantation, or parathyroid surgery may be needed.

More information on hyperparathyroidism

What is hyperparathyroidism? - Hyperparathyroidism is excessive production of parathyroid hormone by the parathyroid glands.
What causes hyperparathyroidism? - The vast majority of hyperparathyroidism cases occur in people with no family history of the disorder.
What are the symptoms of hyperparathyroidism? - Most of the symptoms of hyperparathyroidism are kidney stones, osteoporosis, or bone degradation.
How is hyperparathyroidism diagnosed? - Diagnosis of hyperparathyroidism is made when a blood test reveals high levels of parathyroid hormone and calcium.
What're the treatments for hyperparathyroidism? - The treatment of hyperparathyroidism is primarily surgical, surgical treatment of hyparathyroidism is very safe and successful.
What is primary hyperparathyroidism? - Primary hyperparathyroidism is a common disease that occurs when parathyroid glands become overactive.
What is secondary hyperparathyroidism? - Secondary hyperparathyroidism is a functional disorder of all of the four parathyroid glands due to a serious chronic kidney insufficiency. 
Endocrine disorders Mainpage

Topics in endocrine disorders

Adrenal insufficiency
Addison's disease
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia
Conn's syndrome
Cushing's syndrome
Nelson's syndrome
Bartter's syndrome
Adrenocortical carcinoma
Pituitary gland disorders
Thyroid gland disorders

All information is intended for reference only. Please consult your physician for accurate medical advices and treatment. Copyright 2005,, all rights reserved. Last update: July 18, 2005