What is pheochromocytoma?
Pheochromocytoma is a tumor of special cells (called chromaffin cells), most often found in the middle of the adrenal gland. Pheochromocytoma is a rare disease in which a tumor causes the adrenal medulla to overproduce epinephrine and
norepinephrine hormones. This overproduction of hormones causes high blood pressure and increased metabolism and may elevate blood sugar. Pheochromocytoma occurs primarily in adults 30-40 years of age. It can be life threatening if untreated, and can cause stroke, or damage to the kidneys, brain, or heart.
Because pheochromocytomas arise from chromaffin cells, they are occasionally called chromaffin tumors. Most (90%) are benign tumors so they do not spread to other parts of the body. However, these tumors can cause many problems and if they are not treated and can result in death.
Pheochromocytomas can be found anywhere chromaffin cells are found. They may be found in the heart and in the area around the bladder, but most (90%) are found in the adrenal glands. Every individual has two adrenal glands that are located above the kidneys in the back of the abdomen. Each adrenal gland is made up of two parts: the outer part (called the adrenal cortex) and the inner part (called the adrenal medulla). Pheochromocytomas are found in the adrenal medulla. The adrenal medulla normally secretes two substances, or hormones, called norepinephrine and epinephrine. These two substances, when considered together, are known as adrenaline. Adrenaline is released from the adrenal gland, enters the bloodstream and helps to regulate many things in the body including blood pressure and heart rate. Pheochromocytomas cause the adrenal medulla to secrete too much adrenaline, which in turn causes high blood pressure. The high blood pressure usually causes the other symptoms of the disease.
Pheochromocytomas are rare tumors. They have been reported in babies as young as five days old as well as adults 92 years old. Although they can be found at any time during life, they usually occur in adults between 30 and 40 years of age. Pheochromocytomas are somewhat more common in women than in men.
A pheochromocytoma tumor is usually found in the adrenal gland, although it may occur in other places. The body has two adrenal glands, which sit on top of the kidneys. The tumor often causes symptoms because of the adrenaline-like hormones it secretes. A pheochromocytoma tends to have sudden releases of hormones, which cause a sudden "attack", or onset of symptoms.