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All about hypoparathyroidism causes of hypoparathyroidism symptoms of hypoparathyroidism diagnosis of hypoparathyroidism treatment for hypoparathyroidism

What is hypoparathyroidism?

Hypoparthyroidism is a deficiency of parathyroid hormone that causes abnormal metabolism of calcium and phosphorus. Parathyroid glands consist of four pea-shaped glands located on the back and side of the thyroid gland. The gland produces parathyroid hormone which, along with vitamin D and calcitonin, are important for the regulation of the calcium level in the

body. Hypoparathyroidism affects both males and females of all ages. The parathyroids produce parathyroid hormones that regulate blood levels of calcium necessary for strong bones and teeth, nerve function, and blood clotting.

Hypoparathyroidism is a rare disorder associated with insufficient production of parathyroid hormone, the inability to make a usable form of parathyroid hormone, or the inability of kidneys and bones to respond to parathyroid hormone production. A deficiency of parathyroid hormone lowers blood calcium levels and raises phosphate levels. Hypoparathyroidism either may be inherited or acquired; the acquired form usually results from parathyroid surgery or an underlying disorder, such as cancer or neck trauma.

Parathyroid hormone (PTH) works in conjunction with vitamin D to regulate total body calcium. The body secretes PTH in response to hypocalcemia or hypomagnesemia; the hormone then stimulates osteoclasts to increase bone resorption. PTH also acts indirectly through the stimulation of adenyl cyclase to increase renal tubular calcium resorption and phosphate excretion. Finally, it activates the conversion of 25-hydroxyvitamin D to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, the active form of vitamin D that stimulates calcium and phosphate absorption from the GI tract.

Hypoparathyroidism can result in hypocalcemia, and it commonly is diagnosed during the workup for hypocalcemia. Pseudohypoparathyroidism describes hereditary conditions that cause end organs to be resistant to PTH.

More information on hypoparathyroidism

What is hypoparathyroidism? - Hypoparthyroidism is a deficiency of parathyroid hormone that causes abnormal metabolism of calcium and phosphorus.
What causes hypoparathyroidism? - Causes of hypoparathyroidism include accidental removal of a parathyroid gland when the thyroid is removed.
What are the symptoms of hypoparathyroidism? - The most common symptoms of hypoparathyroidism is muscle cramps or tightness and tingling of the lips or fingers.
How is hypoparathyroidism diagnosed? - Diagnosis of hypoparathyroidism begin with the individual's own observation of symptoms.
What's the treatment for hypoparathyroidism? - Hypoparathyroidism is treated with calcium and vitamin D supplements to maintain a normal level of calcium in the blood. 
Endocrine disorders Mainpage

Topics in endocrine disorders

Adrenal insufficiency
Addison's disease
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia
Conn's syndrome
Cushing's syndrome
Nelson's syndrome
Pheochromocytoma
Bartter's syndrome
Neuroblastoma
Adrenocortical carcinoma
Hypoglycemia
Insulinoma
Rickets
Osteomalacia
Hyperparathyroidism
Hypoparathyroidism
Pituitary gland disorders
Thyroid gland disorders


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