Diagnostic measures begin with the individual's own observation of symptoms. A thorough medical history and physical examination by a physician is always required for an accurate diagnosis. The general practitioner may refer the individual to an endocrinologist, a medical specialist who studies the function of the parathyroid glands as well as other hormone producing glands. Laboratory studies include blood and urine tests to help determine phosphate and calcium levels. X rays are useful to determine any abnormalities in bone density associated with abnormal calcium levels. These autoimmune disorders may accompany hypoparathyroidism, but are not an actual cause of it.
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