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All about congenital adrenal hyperplasia types of congenital adrenal hyperplasia causes of congenital adrenal hyperplasia symptoms of congenital adrenal hyperplasia diagnosis of congenital adrenal hyperplasia treatments for congenital adrenal hyperplasia

What causes congenital adrenal hyperplasia?

Congenital adrenal hyperplasia is an inherited disorder. It is a recessive disease, which means that a child must inherit one copy of the defective gene from each parent who is a carrier; when two carriers have children, each pregnancy carries a 25%

risk of producing an affected child.

In females, congenital adrenal hyperplasia produces an enlarged clitoris at birth and masculinization of features as the child grows, such as deepening of the voice, facial hair, and failure to menstruate or abnormal periods at puberty. Females with severe CAH may be mistaken for males at birth. In males, the genitals are normal at birth, but the child becomes muscular, the penis enlarges, pubic hair appears, and the voice deepens long before normal puberty, sometimes as early as two to three years of age. In the severe salt-wasting form of CAH, newborns may develop symptoms shortly after birth, including vomiting, dehydration, electrolyte (a compound such as sodium or calcium that separates to form ions when dissolved in water) changes, and cardiac arrhythmia.

In the mild form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia, which occurs in late childhood or early adulthood, symptoms include premature development of pubic hair, irregular menstrual periods, unwanted body hair, or severe acne. However, sometimes there are no symptoms.

This particular group of genes contains instructions that the adrenal glands need in order to produce a certain enzyme, 21-hydroxylase (21-OHP). Without this enzyme, the adrenal glands are unable to synthesize cortisol, a hormone necessary for life, in physiologically sufficient amounts.

Cortisol is a steroid produced by the adrenal glands that is needed for our bodies to deal with physical and emotional stress, and to maintain adequate energy supply and blood sugar levels. The adrenal glands are actually controlled by the pituitary gland. The pituitary gland is a small pea-shaped gland at the base of the brain. When the pituitary gland senses that there is not enough cortisol present in the bloodstream, it releases a hormone called ACTH (adrenocoricotrophic hormone). ACTH stimulates the adrenals to produce more cortisol. However, those with CAH have insufficient amounts of the enzyme 21-OHP needed to convert a precursor molecule called 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP) into cortisol. As a result, the pituitary gland continues to sense the need for cortisol and pumps out more ACTH. This leads to an overabundance of 17-OHP, which is converted in the adrenals into excess androgens, masculinizing steroid hormones. Lack of adequate cortisol also prevents the body from properly metabolizing sugar and responding to stress. The lack of this stress response can lead to drowsiness and possibly coma.

More information on congenital adrenal hyperplasia

What is congenital adrenal hyperplasia? - Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) refers to any of several autosomal recessive diseases resulting from defects in steps of the synthesis of cortisol from cholesterol by the adrenal glands.
What types of congenital adrenal hyperplasia are there? - In all its forms, congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency accounts for about 95% of diagnosed cases of CAH.
What causes congenital adrenal hyperplasia? - Congenital adrenal hyperplasia is an inherited disorder. This particular group of genes contains instructions that the adrenal glands need in order to produce 21-hydroxylase.
What are the symptoms of congenital adrenal hyperplasia? - Female children with severe CAH might be born with male genitals. All children with severe CAH have masculine features. The adult onset form is far less severe than the childhood version.
How is congenital adrenal hyperplasia diagnosed? - Congenital adrenal hyperplasia is diagnosed by a careful examination of the genitals and blood and urine tests that measure the hormones produced by the adrenal gland.
What're the treatments for congenital adrenal hyperplasia? - The goal of treatment for congenital adrenal hyperplasia is to return the androgen levels to normal. Patients with CAH should see a pediatric endocrinologist frequently. 
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Topics in endocrine disorders

Adrenal insufficiency
Addison's disease
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia
Conn's syndrome
Cushing's syndrome
Nelson's syndrome
Pheochromocytoma
Bartter's syndrome
Neuroblastoma
Adrenocortical carcinoma
Hypoglycemia
Insulinoma
Rickets
Osteomalacia
Hyperparathyroidism
Hypoparathyroidism
Pituitary gland disorders
Thyroid gland disorders


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